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The speakers in the book are: a Bride, called the Shulammite (6:13); the King: and a Chorus of Palace ladies called, Daughters of Jerusalem. Solomon's harem was as yet small, only 60 wives and 80 concubines, with innumerable virgins on the waiting list (6:8). It grew to include 700 wives and 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:3).
A common opinion, and probably the best, is that the Shulammite was Abishag, of Shunem, the fairest maiden in all the land, who attended David in his lat days (1 Kings 1:1-4), and who, no doubt, became Solomon's wife, for her marriage to another might have endangered his throne (1 Kings 2:17, 22).
The poem is a eulogy of the joys of wedded life. It essence is in its tender and devoted expressions of the intimate delights of wedded love. If it has no other purpose, it deserves a place in sacred literature because God ordained marriage and the home (Gen. 2:24).
Jews read it as Passover as allegorically referring to the Exodus, where God espoused Israel to Himself as His Bride.
Christians regard it as a pre-nuptial Song of Christ and the Church. In the New Testament the church is called the Bride of Christ (Matt. 9:15; 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:23; Rev. 19:7; 21:2; 22:17).
Subjects of the Chapters:
Chapter 1. The Bride's love for the King. Mostly words of her own devotion, with brief replies by the King and the Chorus.
Chapter 2. The Bride's delight in the King's love. Mostly her own words, in soliloquy about the King's embraces.
Chatter 3. The Bride's dream of her Lover's disappearance, and her joy in finding him again.
Chapter 4. The King adores the Bride. She invites him into the garden of marital delights.
Chapter 5. Another dream of her Lover's disappearance, following their nuptial union; her devotion to him.
Chapter 6. The Shulammite and the loveliest among the 140 beauties of the palace.
Chapter 7. Ther mutual devotion, told each to the other.
Chapter 8. Their love unquenchable, and their union indissoluble.